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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-18

Prevalence of Anemia among rural population living in and around of rural health and training center, Ratua Village of Madhya Pradesh


Department of Community Medicine, Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication15-Mar-2014

Correspondence Address:
Sanjay Kumar Gupta
Department of Community Medicine, Peoples College of Medical Sciences and Research, Peoples University, Bhanpur, Bhopal - 462 037, Madhya Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0975-9727.128936

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Nutritional anaemia is a worldwide problem with the highest prevalence in developing countries. It is found especially among women of child-bearing age, young children and during pregnancy and lactation. It is estimated to affect nearly two-thirds of pregnant and one-half of non pregnant women in developing countries. Objectives: To study the trend and severity of anaemia among people attending at Ratua RHTC and various socio demographic factors for the same. Materials and Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study. Observation: The trend of anaemia from 2008 to 2011 was in increasing trend, 9%, 15%, 22%, and 27% respectively and in 2012 constant around 26%. Anaemia was more common in females than males, 18% males and 82% females were reported anaemia of various degrees in the study period. Anaemia was highest among 11-25 years of age 42% followed by 26-40 years 23% and lowest among 0-10 years of age 8.69%. Anaemia among elderly was quite higher 15.5%. Most of the males had mild anaemia 16% followed by moderate 6.61% and severe 0.77% in contrast most of the females had moderate anaemia 42% followed by mild 31.35% and severe 3%. Trend of anaemia in female patients were in increasing trend from 2008-2009, than little decreases in 2010 and further decreases in 2011 after that again increases in 2012. Conclusion: Anaemia was significantly higher in females in comparison to males in moderate and severe category. Anaemia was highest among 11-25 years of age group.

Keywords: Anemia, general population, health center, rural area


How to cite this article:
Gupta SK, Agarwal SS, Kaushal R, Jain A, Gupta VK, Khare N. Prevalence of Anemia among rural population living in and around of rural health and training center, Ratua Village of Madhya Pradesh. Muller J Med Sci Res 2014;5:15-8

How to cite this URL:
Gupta SK, Agarwal SS, Kaushal R, Jain A, Gupta VK, Khare N. Prevalence of Anemia among rural population living in and around of rural health and training center, Ratua Village of Madhya Pradesh. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Sep 18];5:15-8. Available from: http://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2014/5/1/15/128936


  Introduction Top


Nutritional anemia is a world-wide problem with the highest prevalence in developing countries. It is found especially among women of child-bearing age, young children and during the pregnancy and lactation. It is estimated to affect nearly two-thirds of pregnant and one-half of non-pregnant women in developing countries. [1] The populations of developed countries are not by any means completely free of anemia and a significant percentage of women of child-bearing age (estimated between 4% and 12%) suffer from anemia. [2] Iron deficiency anemia is a major nutrition problem in India and many other developing countries. In addition, many subjects have iron deficiency without anemia. [3],[4] The incidence of anemia is highest among women and young children, varying between 60% and 70%. Recent surveys indicate that in rural India anemia is much more widespread than hitherto believed even among men. [5]

Iron deficiency can arise either due to inadequate intake or poor bioavailability of dietary iron or due to excessive losses of iron from the body. Although most habitual diets contain seemingly adequate amounts of iron, only a small amount (<5%) is absorbed. [6] This poor bioavailability is considered to be a major reason for the widespread iron.

Deficiency. [4] Women lose a considerable amount of iron especially during menstruation. Some of the other factors leading to anemia are malaria and hookworm infestations. In addition mothers who have born children at close intervals become anemic due to the additional demands of the rapid pregnancies and the loss of blood in each delivery. In some areas of India, it has been shown that folate deficiency anemia affects 25-50% of pregnant women attending hospital clinics. [7] Present evidence suggests that a high prevalence of folate deficiency anemia in pregnancy is a universal phenomenon and is associated unnecessarily with the economically underprivileged. [8] Detrimental effects.

The detrimental effects of anemia can be seen in three important areas: [9] (a) Pregnancy: Anemia increases the risk of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. In India, 20-40% of maternal deaths were found to be due to anemia. [10] Conditions such as abortions, premature births, post-partum hemorrhage and low birth weight were especially associated with low hemoglobin (Hb) levels in pregnancy. (b) Infection: Anemia can be caused or aggravated by parasitic diseases, e.g., malaria, intestinal parasites. Further, iron deficiency may impair cellular responses and immune functions and increase susceptibility to infection. (c) Work capacity: Anemia (even when mild) causes a significant impairment of maximal work capacity. The more severe the anemia, the greater reduction in work performance and thereby productivity. This has great significance on the economy of the country. Interventions an estimation of Hb should be done to assess the degree of anemia. If the anemia is "severe," 10 gl/dl high doses of iron or blood transfusion may be necessary. If Hb is between 10 and 12 g/dl, the other interventions are: Iron and folic acid supplementation. In order to prevent nutritional anemia among mothers and children (1-12 years), the Government of India sponsored a National Nutritional Anemia Prophylaxis Program during the fourth 5 year plan. The program is based on daily supplementation with iron and folic acid tablets to prevent mild and moderate cases of anemia. The beneficiaries are "at risk" group's viz., pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under 12 years. Eligibility criteria: [11] These are determined by the Hb levels of the patients. If the Hb is between 10 and 12, daily supplement with iron and folic acid tablets is advised; if it is <10 g, the patient is referred to the nearest primary health center.

(a) Mothers: One tablet of iron and folic acid containing 100 mg of elemental iron (300 mg of ferrous sulfate) and 0.5 mg of folic acid should be given daily. The daily administration should be continued until 2-3 months after Hb level has returned to normal so that iron stores replenished. It is necessary that estimation of Hb is repeated at 3-4 month intervals. The exact period of supplementation will depend upon the progress of the beneficiary. (b) Children: If anemia is suspected, a screening test for anemia may be done on infants at 6 months and 1 and 2 years of age. [12] One tablet of iron and folic acid containing 20 mg of elemental iron (60 mg of ferrous sulfate) and 0.1 mg of folic acid should be given daily.


  Objectives Top


  1. The primary goal is to investigate the trend and severity of anemia among people attending at Ratua Rural Health and Training Center.
  2. And secondary goal is to study the various socio demographic factors for the same.



  Materials and Methods Top


Present study was carried out from 2008 to 2012 at rural health and training center, all the cases those who examined for anemia (Hb%) by the sallies method during that period at center taken as a sample, all the cases were categorize according to their Hb% status as mild, moderate and severe anemia, the criteria for classification was used if any person having Hb% <7 g% categorize as severe anemia, between 7 and 9 g% moderate and 9.1-12 g% mild. Various socio-demographic parameters also analyzed, like age and gender.


  Observation Top


The trend of anemia from 2008 to 2011 was in increasing trend, 9%, 15%, 22% and 27% respectively and in 2012 constant around 26% [Table 1]. Anemia was more common in females than males, 18% males and 82% females were reported anemia of various degrees in the study period [Table 2]. Anemia was highest among 11-25 years of age 42% followed by 26-40 years 23% and lowest among 0-10 years of age 8.69% [Table 3]. Anemia among elderly was quite higher 15.5%. Most of the males had mild anemia 16% followed by moderate 6.61% and severe 0.77% in contrast most of the females had moderate anemia 42% followed by mild 31.35% and severe 3% [Table 4]. Trends of anemia in females patients were in 2008 83%, 2009 76%, 2010 85%, 2011 81% and 2012 76% respectively. [Graph 1], shows the yearly trend of severe anaemia cases among females, majority of anaemia cases were reported in 2012 (32.7%) followed by 2009(25%) and least number in 2011 (7.36%), [Graph 2] shows year wise trend of anaemia cases among 0-10 years of age, majority of cases reported were in 2009 (12%) followed by 2008 (9.78%).
Table 1: Distribution of anemia cases according to the respective year

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Table 2: Anemia cases according to their gender and years of occurrence

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Table 3: Anemia cases according to their age and years

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Table 4: Cases according to the severity of anemia

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  Discussion Top


The present study has found a high number 42% of anemia cases in 11-25 years age group of the rural population of north India. The cases of anemia among females was 82% while among males it was 18%, the study conducted by Toteja et al., prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India, [13] they had reported prevalence of anemia higher than the present study may be due to our study is hospital based and we have not segregated male and female adolescents and pregnant and non-pregnant cases. According to WHO if the prevalence of anemia at community levels is more than 40%, it is considered as a problem of high magnitude. [2] This study thus brings out the fact that the problem of anemia is related to the wider population than the traditionally considered groups of the pregnant and lactating females and children. The adult male population is equally susceptible. In the present study anemia were in elderly 16%, in contrast community based study conducted by Swami et al. at Urban Chandigarh anemia was very high 68.5% among elderly, [14] this difference may be due to our study is hospital based.

The prevalence of various parasitic infestations and other chronic illnesses were not available in the recorded so it is difficult to comment upon the causes of high prevalence of anemia in males. Among adult male population prompted us to publish our findings. There is a need for a systematic study to find out the frequency as well as the causes of anemia at the community level both among males and females. These findings also suggest that intervention for anemia should be directed at all members of the community.


  Conclusion Top


Anemia was higher among female in all years and 11-25 years of age, majority of females were suffering from moderate anemia but in male's mild anemia.

Percentage of anemia cases were increased from 2008 to 2011 and near constant in 2012.


  Acknowledgments Top


We are very thankful to all staffs of Rural Health and Training Center of Ratua.

 
  References Top

1.The Work of World Health Organization from 1980-81, Biennia Report number 31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.World Health Organization Sixth Report on World Health Situation, 1980;Vol I.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.World Health Organization technical Report Series 1972; P 503.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Srikantia S.G. Proceeding of Nutrition Society of India 1983;28: p. 7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Narsinga Rao, B.s. Proceeding of Nutrition Society of India 1983; 28: P 6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Narsinga Rao B.S. Iron content, bioavailability & factors affecting iron status of Indians, Ind. J. Med. Res 1978; 58: 58-69.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Nutrition: A review of the WHO programme. 1. WHO Chron 1972;26:160-79.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.M. Layrisse, M Roche,S J Baker, In Nutrition in Preventive Medicine, the major deficiency syndromes, epidemiology and approach to control: Nutritional anaemia, WHO Monograph, published by World health organization Geneva. 1976; 55-62..  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hefnawi F, Askalani H, Zaki K. Menstrual blood loss with copper intrauterine devices. Contraception 1974;9:133-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Royston E. The prevalence of nutritional anaemia in women in developing countries: A critical review of available information. World Health Stat Q 1982;35:52-91.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Govt. of India. Manual for Health Worker (F). Vol I. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; 1978.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Barness LA. Nutrition and nutritional dis- orders. In: Nelson's Textbook of Pediat- rics, 14th edn. Eds. Behrman RE, Kliegman RM, Nelson WE, Vaughan VC. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co, 1992; pp. 105-146.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Toteja GS, Singh P, Dhillon BS, Saxena BN, Ahmed FU, Singh RP, et al. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women and adolescent girls in 16 districts of India. Food Nutr Bull 2006;27:311-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Swami HM, Bhatia V, Dutt R, Bhatia SP. A community based study of the morbidity profile among the elderly in Chandigarh, India. Bahrain Med Bull 2002;24:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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Abstract
Introduction
Objectives
Materials and Me...
Observation
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Acknowledgments
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