Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts 386


 
 Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-29

Development of a module to successfully implement competency-based medical education program in an institute


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication24-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava
3rd Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai Village, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_50_17

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Medical education aims to train students in such a way that they are empowered to meet the health needs of the population. Competency-based medical education (CBME) aims to ensure that the student acquires the desired competencies to meet the needs of people in a community and even addresses the constraints attributed to the conventional medical education. Institutes with an active CBME program in place, but in novice stages, have an immense need to sensitize the faculty or the postgraduate students about the different domains of CBME. Having a module, which is designed in a systematic and structured manner, can prove to be a wonderful tool to carry out the sensitization session. The overall process of preparation of a module goes through the stages of needs assessment, designing of the module, and finally the development of a module. To conclude, the presence of a structured module built on the comprehensive needs assessment can help an institute to successfully implement CBME within their setup.

Keywords: Competency-based medical education, module, needs assessment


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Development of a module to successfully implement competency-based medical education program in an institute. Muller J Med Sci Res 2018;9:27-9

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS, Ramasamy J. Development of a module to successfully implement competency-based medical education program in an institute. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Sep 16];9:27-9. Available from: http://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2018/9/1/27/223916


  Introduction Top


Medical education aims to train students in such a way that they are empowered to meet the health needs of the population.[1] However, as the current conventional system of medical education has multiple limitations (viz., subject-centered, time-oriented, summative form of evaluation, no opportunity for feedback, and minimal emphasis on acquiring clinical or communication skills), the competency-based medical education (CBME) has emerged as an effective approach.[1],[2] CBME aims to ensure that the student acquires the desired competencies to meet the needs of people in a community and even addresses the constraints attributed to the conventional medical education.[1],[2]

Implementation of Competency-based Medical Education

Implementation of CBME in an organization or in other words shift from conventional to CBME is not a decision, which can be taken by management or some individuals alone in isolation.[2] The decision to initiate CBME in any institute or any specialty should be derived on the basis of brainstorming discussions between the involved stakeholders, the pros and cons associated with the shift, the required resources and infrastructure, the opinion of the staffs, financial support, etc.[2] In addition, an extensive ground work should be done to develop entrustable professional activities (EPAs), specific to different specialties, as the accomplishment of the defined EPAs will help the assessors in certifying the student as a competent during the course of their training.[1],[2],[3]

Institutes with Competency-based Medical Education Program: Novice Stages

Institutes with an active CBME program in place, but in novice stages, have an immense need to sensitize the faculty or the students about the different domains of CBME.[2],[3] Having a module, which is designed in a systematic and structured manner, can prove to be a wonderful tool to carry out the sensitization session.[3] The overall process of preparation of a module goes through the stages of needs assessment, designing of the module, and finally the development of a module.[3],[4],[5],[6]

Needs Assessment

The first step in the design of a module is to perform a needs assessment, which precisely focuses on the assessment of the current scenario and the desired scenario, and where we are actually lagging.[4] More often than not, assessment of the current scenario identifies the issues of lack of sensitization of the faculty and the students regarding the components of the CBME, including EPAs, mode of assessment, tools for assessment, and certification of EPAs.[4] However, in the desired/ideal scenario, implementation of CBME should be done only after adequate sensitization and repeated discussion between different levels of stakeholders.[4] Further, there should be precise guidelines to grade students in each of their EPAs using validated and feasible tools in a periodic and predefined manner.[4]

The step of needs assessment is followed by the identification of key priorities and their significance in the success of the program.[4],[5] Once again, it is a vital step so that we do not waste our resources, time, and even efforts in addressing an issue, which is no longer important for the involved stakeholders.[4] As the program has already been launched, it is high time that efforts are taken to sensitize the faculties and the students about their roles and responsibilities.[4] Moreover, the focus should be shifted toward the development and validation of appropriate tools for assessment, which can be used in heterogeneous settings (workplace, simulated, department laboratory, etc.) and enable faculty to assess and monitor the progress of students.[4],[5]

This should be followed by the identification of specific problem areas (viz., faculty, management, and infrastructure) and the opportunities available within the institution/department.[4] As a matter of fact, implementation of the CBME program in itself can act as a unique opportunity for the faculty and students to be benefited extensively.[4] Finally, the process of needs assessment is not complete unless we suggest possible solutions for dealing with the identified needs.[4] Moreover, interventions such as a thorough review of literature to understand the different domains of CBME, sensitization of faculty (team members) and postgraduate students regarding their roles and mode of assessment, and development and validation of appropriate assessment tools (with a definitive provision to obtain feedback from students) can be tried for the smooth implementation and modification of the CBME program.[3],[4],[5]

Designing of the module

This step advocates for a clear, logical alignment between:

  1. Rationale of the module: To identify the educational goal of the program (to develop a competent postgraduate through certification) and its importance (as without the certification, the ultimate aims of implementation of CBME cannot be accomplished)[3],[5],[6]
  2. Aim of the module: To sensitize the faculty and postgraduate students about the CBME and the expectations from the stakeholders [3],[6]
  3. Intended learning outcomes: It is very essential to define precisely what the participants should be able to do at the end of the session:


    1. The learner (faculty and postgraduate student) is expected to know his/her responsibilities during assessment
    2. Faculty should understand the reasons/justify the process of certification for grading the students, and
    3. Faculty should be able to assess the postgraduate students using appropriate assessment tools [5],[6]


  4. The content: The content of the module should be in alignment with the intended learning outcomes and the proposed form of assessment [5],[6]
  5. Teaching and learning activities: These include the presentation which teacher makes, activities designed for students for better understanding (viz., discussion, peer learning, web-based teaching, demonstration, problem-solving, case study, and group work), materials supplied during the course of modular training, and ways in which evidence of their increasing grasp can be collected [3],[5],[6]
  6. Assessment activities or tasks like obtaining feedback: This is an extremely important step as assessment derives learning and we should assess only those things which have been specified in the intended learning outcomes. The assessment activities can include both formative and summative assessments (such as open-book assignment, reflective journal assignment, presentation, self-assessment and peer assessment, portfolio, practical assessment, case study assessment, and group project). Once again, there should be a definitive provision for obtaining feedback from the students, as it will further help the module developers to refine and revise the content.[3],[5],[6]


Development of the module

This step actually deals with:

  1. Preparing the contents of the module based on the findings of needs assessment and review of literature: Basics of CBME, its scope, how it is different from the traditional mode of teaching, why is it the need of the hour in current clinical practice, anticipated benefits for the learners, etc.[3],[6]
  2. Identification of the appropriate resources to support both teaching and facilitate learning: Deciding about various methods of teaching and learning which can be incorporated in the module, and the resources which will be given to the learners to expedite their understanding such as scheduling of teachers (only internal faculty or external speakers as well)/students (postgraduate students from different departments)/teaching activities, assessment time, and module resources (place of training, available facilities, equipment, etc.)[5],[6]
  3. Taking a call about the assessment tasks: Assessment during the course of the module has to be periodic to monitor the progress of the learners in their knowledge, skills, and attitudes (pertaining to CBME and various other attributes). However, the students should not be overassessed, and feedback should be obtained from the learners about each of the teaching or assessment sessions.[3],[5],[6]



  Conclusion Top


The presence of a structured module built on the comprehensive needs assessment can help an institute to successfully implement CBME within their setup.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Shah N, Desai C, Jorwekar G, Badyal D, Singh T. Competency-based medical education: An overview and application in pharmacology. Indian J Pharmacol 2016;48:S5-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Touchie C, ten Cate O. The promise, perils, problems and progress of competency-based medical education. Med Educ 2016;50:93-100.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
University of Brighton. Centre for Learning and Teaching – Study Pack – Module Design; 2014. Available from: http://www.blogs.brighton.ac.uk/cltresources/files/2014/08/Module_Design_Study-Pack_2014-qkcujh.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 19].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
McNamara C. Assessing Your Training Needs: Needs Assessment to Training Goals; 2017. Available from: http://www.managementhelp.org/training/systematic/needs-assessment.htm. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 19].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lau KH. Computer-based teaching module design: Principles derived from learning theories. Med Educ 2014;48:247-54.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Donnelly R, Fitzmaurice M. Designing Modules for Learning; 2005. Available from: http://www.arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ltcbk. [Last accessed on 2017 Sep 19].  Back to cited text no. 6
    




 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Conclusion
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1137    
    Printed46    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded155    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]