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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 98-99

Implementing case-based learning in medical colleges in India


Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication27-Nov-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
3rd Floor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Ammapettai Village, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Sembakkam Post, Kancheepuram - 603 108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_18_18

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  Abstract 


In the current era, it is a great challenge for the teachers to identify effective ways to aid undergraduate medical students to accomplish the learning outcomes successfully. In order to achieve this as well as assist an Indian Medical Graduate to acquire five basic roles, the use of case-based learning (CBL) is an effective approach, as it not only imparts subject content but also engages the students in real-life case scenarios. Further, CBL should be considered as a supplementary tool in our conventional teaching; otherwise, it will not deliver the desired outcomes. To conclude, CBL is an effective method of teaching–learning and the prospects of incorporating the same within the curriculum to make the learning more simplified and authentic should be explored by medical colleges in India.

Keywords: Case-based learning, India, medical colleges


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Implementing case-based learning in medical colleges in India. Muller J Med Sci Res 2018;9:98-9

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Implementing case-based learning in medical colleges in India. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 11];9:98-9. Available from: http://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2018/9/2/98/246162




  Introduction Top


In the current era, it is a great challenge for the teachers to identify effective ways to aid undergraduate medical students to accomplish the learning outcomes successfully.[1] In addition, there is an immense need to inculcate problem-solving, critical thinking and reasoning, and other skills, which have become a must attribute for a successful doctor.[1],[2] In order to achieve this as well as assist an Indian Medical Graduate (IMG) to acquire five basic roles, the use of case-based learning (CBL) is an effective approach. CBL focuses on teaching subject content and at the same time engages the students in real-life case scenarios.[1],[2] The available literature suggests that CBL can encourage the medical students to accumulate and apply available information to solve problems, facilitate retention of relevant information, improve communication skills, help students to get exposed to decision-making roles, and eventually aid them to be a lifelong and a self-directed learner.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]


  Process of the Implementation of Case-Based Learning Top


Considering the advantages associated with CBL, each of the medical colleges should explore the option of introducing the same in their setup, within the existing curriculum to improve the quality of the medical students graduating from their institutes.[3] This initially requires a needs assessment, followed by the formation of a team (comprising members like dean, curriculum committee members, medical education unit, head of the departments, and management) and then sensitizing the faculty members about CBL.[1],[3],[5] This should be followed by the identification of those topics in which CBL can be adopted for the enhancement of the learning and define specific learning objectives (SLOs) for them.[3]

This should be simultaneously followed up with the identification of the students (1st/2nd/3rd/final year) and deciding about the appropriate methods of assessment to evaluate different Kirkpatrick levels of learning. Further, a system-based approach can be adopted to make the overall process simplified, with the inputs being students (and their level), faculty, curriculum, designed cases, infrastructure, SLOs, methods of assessment, etc. The process could be taking a call on the method which will be used to impart CBL (single method or some combination). The outcome would be a competent learner in terms of well-developed clinical reasoning and clinical problem skills, along with a self-directed learner, and feedback can be obtained from different stakeholders to improve the process further and to check whether the set SLOs are met or not. In case of a private setup, support from the management becomes the first and foremost thing about the inclusion of CBL as one of the teaching–learning methods.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]


  Case-Based Learning: A Replacement or a Supplementary Tool Top


Now the question arises, should CBL be considered as a supplementary tool in our conventional teaching or can it be a replacement for conventional teaching method? To answer this, we have to keep an IMG in our mind, and if we want our products to meet the set standards, it is hard to believe that a single method of teaching–learning can achieve it, as each method has some pros and cons. In fact, the choice of methods depends on various factors ranging from the number of students in class, resources, time available, training status of faculty, vision of management, fitting within the MCI-recommended norms, etc. Thus, CBL should be regarded as a supplementary tool to our conventional teaching and based on the findings of need assessment and the level of understanding of the learners at that stage. It means we have to be very much realistic and think whether the designed cases or specified SLOs can really be achieved for the specified learners based on their understanding at that specific time.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]


  Concerns and Challenges Top


Finally, the concerns or challenges which we are expected to face in the implementation of CBL should also be explored; otherwise, it will not deliver the desired outcomes. Issues to be considered may range from selection of appropriate learner for appropriate cases, training of faculty, risk of conversion of CBL to a large group teaching, availability of resources, preparation/interest levels of learners and faculty (namely, if students do not prepare and come, the entire exercise is a failure), frequency of CBL sessions (insufficient time for both the learners and faculty will not help), fund constraints, improper planning or poor organization (such as incomplete SLOs, poorly designed cases, and inappropriate methods of assessment), and continuous support from administration and management.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]


  Conclusion Top


CBL is an effective method of teaching–learning and the prospects of incorporating the same within the curriculum to make the learning more simplified and authentic should be explored by medical colleges in India.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Bhardwaj P, Bhardwaj N, Mahdi F, Srivastava JP, Gupta U. Integrated teaching program using case-based learning. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2015;5:S24-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ginzburg SB, Deutsch S, Bellissimo J, Elkowitz DE, Stern JN, Lucito R, et al. Integration of leadership training into a problem/case-based learning program for first- and second-year medical students. Adv Med Educ Pract 2018;9:221-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Singhal A. Case-based learning in microbiology: Observations from a North West Indian medical college. Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2017;7:S47-S51.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Qamar K, Rehman S, Khan MA. Effectiveness of case-based learning during small groups sessions at army medical college. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016;26:232-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kapoor N. Teaching pathology of breast cancer to medical undergraduates by case based learning method. Indian J Cancer 2015;52:215-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
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Abstract
Introduction
Process of the I...
Case-Based Learn...
Concerns and Cha...
Conclusion
References

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