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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 54-56

Role of motivation in accomplishing the learning outcomes among undergraduate medical students


1 Department of Community Medicine, Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission29-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance25-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication02-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjmsr.mjmsr_5_22

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  Abstract 


The branch of medicine is extremely challenging as health-care professionals deal with the lives of humans and the very fact that each patient is different from another. Most of the regulatory bodies governing the delivery of medical education across the globe expect that upon the completion of undergraduate training, a graduate student should attain the core competency to become a lifelong learner. In order to become a lifelong learner, a student has to be a self-directed learner, which essentially requires loads of motivation. The ideal approach will be to carry out aptitude tests before a student joins the medical school and based on the results only enroll them. However, this practice is not being followed in most medical schools across the world. To conclude, acknowledging the complicated and vast nature of the medical curriculum, it is crucial that medical students should be motivated toward their learning. It is the need of the hour that medical teachers and administrators should look for opportunities to motivate the students and provide them with a suitable learning atmosphere that encourages learning.

Keywords: Medical education, motivation, student


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Role of motivation in accomplishing the learning outcomes among undergraduate medical students. Muller J Med Sci Res 2022;13:54-6

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Role of motivation in accomplishing the learning outcomes among undergraduate medical students. Muller J Med Sci Res [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 6];13:54-6. Available from: https://www.mjmsr.net/text.asp?2022/13/1/54/355298




  Introduction Top


The branch of medicine is extremely challenging as health-care professionals deal with the lives of humans and the very fact that each patient is different from another. At the same time, as the field of medicine continues to change with each day, it puts an added load on the health staff to stay abreast with the recent developments, and not only improve their professional knowledge and skills, but also use the same for patient care. Further, we cannot deny that the medical profession is still being acknowledged as a noble one, and many parents dream that their children become doctors in future, with or without their consent.[1] Thus, many students are pushed into the medicine branch against their will, and considering that the syllabus and the learning competencies are too many, upon entering into medical schools, the students fail to make the expected academic progression.[1]


  Motivation in Medical Education Top


Most of the regulatory bodies governing the delivery of medical education across the globe expect that upon the completion of undergraduate training, a graduate student should attain the core competency to become a lifelong learner.[1],[2] In order to become a lifelong learner, a student has to first become a self-directed learner, which means that students are the ones who take responsibility for their own learning and thus formulate their individual strategies to expedite the learning process.[2],[3] Moreover, the learning in medicine does not happen within the four walls of classrooms and being adult learners, students prefer to learn at their speed and when they feel comfortable. This trait of being a self-directed learner essentially requires loads of motivation (internal or external), and it becomes the responsibility of the teachers to identify the factors that can impact the motivation levels among students.[1],[2],[3]


  Theories of Motivation Top


In general, three theories have been proposed for motivation in education. The self-determination theory envisages about the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, wherein the students who are internally motivated tends to have deep learning, more efforts in studies, better academic performance, higher levels of creativity, reduced rates of dropouts, and more engagement, when compared with the students who are externally motivated.[3],[4] The social cognitive theory gives emphasis toward self-efficacy, which deals with an individual personal judgment about their capability to organize and execute series of actions to eventually attain the expected level of performance.[4] The last theory deals with attribution (wherein success or failure is associated with internal or external factors, the stability of the causes, and the ability to control these causes), and self-theories (wherein students either believe they have a fixed level of intelligence that cannot be enhanced [entity] or those group of students who know that they can improve their performance depending on the efforts put by them [incremental]).[4]


  Factors Influencing Motivation among Medical Students Top


As already mentioned, a number of parameters together influence the decision to become a doctor, such as the desire to explore new things, doctors in the family, attitude to help humankind, strong feel to identify ourselves with the field, and humanistic aspect of medicine.[5] Upon entering into medical schools, attributes such as finding the right group of friends/seniors or getting linked with dedicated teachers either as a mentor or as an informal guide, academic success in the initial part of the course (which pushes them to do better even in future), interest in subjects, enjoying the learning process, a feeling of satisfaction, ability to relate theoretical knowledge with practical/clinical aspects, and constructive feedback from the teachers play an important role in motivating medical students.[3],[4],[5],[6]

Further, there is a set of students who are motivated toward reading because of the fear of failing or receiving punishment and thus enhance their efforts just before the exams.[5] In addition, factors such as autonomy (ability to plan their learning based on their own ideologies and not because of external pressure) and competency (belief among themselves that they will be able to attain the learning competencies) also act as a strong motivating factor among medical students to keep working hard.[3],[4],[5],[6] Moreover, family background, family support, personal attributes (such as ethnicity and gender), and a feeling that we belong to the profession, play an important role in motivating medical students.[6],[7]


  Strategies to Enhance Motivation Top


The ideal approach will be to carry out aptitude tests before a student joins the medical school and based on the results only enroll them.[1] However, this practice is not being followed in most medical schools across the world. Considering that who takes admission in medicine is beyond our control, the best chance which we have to motivate medical students is through linking each one of them to a mentor.[2],[3] It is the responsibility of the mentor to understand the problems encountered by the student and then suggest to him the right direction to continue the learning process.[5],[7] Obviously, it is quite a difficult task for a teacher to do so with many students being attached to a single mentor; nevertheless, utilizing each of the learning opportunities to provide constructive feedback to the students by all the teachers can turn out to be a masterstroke.[3],[4],[5],[6]

On a similar note, even the administrators and management should take efforts to motivate the students for their learning by keeping things flexible and providing them with a suitable environment that makes the student enjoy the overall learning process.[8] The findings of studies have shown that the use of simulation-based training (that involves students in real-life like educational experiences) or inclusion of an elective posting plays an important role in enhancing students' motivation.[9],[10] Further, the incorporation of small-group teaching sessions, which gives an opportunity to the students to interact with their peer aid in improving their communication skills and learning the art of teamwork.[9],[10] Moreover, teachers can definitely use the opportunity of an achievement as an emotion for motivating the students to continue the good work and keep moving forward.[11],[12]


  Conclusion Top


To conclude, acknowledging the complicated and vast nature of the medical curriculum, it is crucial that medical students should be motivated toward their learning. It is the need of the hour that medical teachers and administrators should look for opportunities to motivate the students and provide them with a suitable learning atmosphere that encourages learning.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Pelaccia T, Viau R. Motivation in medical education. Med Teach 2017;39:136-40.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Bin Mubayrik HF. Exploring adult learners' viewpoints and motivation regarding distance learning in medical education. Adv Med Educ Pract 2020;11:139-46.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rethans JJ, Donner-Banzhoff N. Motivation in medical education and patient communication. The EGPRN meeting in Zurich, Switzerland, October 2010. Eur J Gen Pract 2011;17:129-32.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Kusurkar RA, Artino AR, ten Cate TJ. Motivation and learning. In: Bhuiyan PS, editors. The Art of Teaching Medical Students. 3rd ed. Gurgaon: Elsevier Press; 2015. p. 65-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kunanitthaworn N, Wongpakaran T, Wongpakaran N, Paiboonsithiwong S, Songtrijuck N, Kuntawong P, et al. Factors associated with motivation in medical education: A path analysis. BMC Med Educ 2018;18:140.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kusurkar RA, Ten Cate TJ, van Asperen M, Croiset G. Motivation as an independent and a dependent variable in medical education: A review of the literature. Med Teach 2011;33:e242-62.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Isik U, Wouters A, Verdonk P, Croiset G, Kusurkar RA. “As an ethnic minority, you just have to work twice as hard.” Experiences and motivation of ethnic minority students in medical education. Perspect Med Educ 2021;10:272-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Luu NH, Nguyen LV, van der Wilt GJ, Broerse J, Ruitenberg EJ, Wright EP. Motivation of university and non-university stakeholders to change medical education in Vietnam. BMC Med Educ 2009;9:49.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Younan HC. Simulation-based medical education to improve intrinsic motivation in medical students. Adv Med Educ Pract 2017;8:31-2.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kusurkar R, Croiset G. Electives support autonomy and autonomous motivation in undergraduate medical education. Med Teach 2014;36:915-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Artino AR Jr., Holmboe ES, Durning SJ. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education? Med Teach 2012;34:240-4.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Artino AR Jr., Holmboe ES, Durning SJ. Control-value theory: Using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64. Med Teach 2012;34:e148-60.  Back to cited text no. 12
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
Motivation in Me...
Theories of Moti...
Factors Influenc...
Strategies to En...
Conclusion
References

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